Crowdsourcing

27. August 2008 | Von Tino Kreßner | Kategorie: Marketing 2.0

Der Begriff Crowdsourcing wurde 2006 von Jeff Howe und Mark Robinson (Wired Magazine) geprägt und bezeichnet die kollektive Intelligenz und Arbeitskraft von „Freizeitarbeitern“ im Internet. Diese generieren bereitwillig Inhalte, lösen diverse Aufgaben und Probleme oder werden in Entwicklungsprozesse mit beteiligt.

Die Motivation dazu kann bei jedem verschiedene Faktoren besitzen. Der rationale Mensch geht davon aus, dass er tatsächlich einen Beitrag zur Herstellung oder Verbesserung des Produktes hat. Der sozialisierte Mensch handelt nach seiner Rolle im Netzwerk. Als Meinungsführer möchte er am Produkt mitreden, der Kenner möchte sein Insiderwissen ausbauen und der Verkäufer möchte seine Empfehlung mit eigens geschaffenen Inhalten weiterverbreiten.

Das Kollektiv agiert beim Crowdsourcing dabei als „Superorganismus“ und trifft germeinsame Entscheidungen konsensbasierend. Kollektive Intelligenz ist bereits ein altes Phänomen, doch durch das Internet wird es so einfach wie nie zuvor das dezentrale verstreute Wissen der Menschen nutzbar zu machen. Crowdsourcing bedeutet eine interaktive Wertschöpfung, bei der eine Aufgabe, die normalerweise von bezahlten Mitarbeitern erledigt wird, für Nutzer in einem Netzwerk zur Mitwirkung ausgerufen wird. Bei der Aufgabe kann es sich dabei laut Frank Piller um eine Innovation (Schaffung neuen Wissens) drehen oder aber um die laborative Zusammenarbeit bei der Erstellung oder Konfiguration eines Produktes. Die komplette Produkt- oder Markenpromotion kann hierdurch in die Hände von Kunden gelegt werden. Diese können freiwillig entscheiden, ob sie die Extraufgabe übernehmen oder lediglich das fertige Produkt kaufen.

Crowdsourcing als modernes Outsourcing?

Crowdsourcing kann als modernes Outsourcing im Web 2.0 verstanden werden. Vielleicht sogar ein neues Business-Modell oder eine neue Management Einstellung – die „Bekenntnis zu kunden- und lösungsorientierten Produktionen und Dienstleistungen.“, so der Marketingexperte Hannes Treichl auf seinem Weblog „ANDERS|denken“. Wichtig dabei ist, dass beide Seiten was davon haben. Wenn die Kunden merken, vor den Karren eines Unternehmens gespannt zu werden und nur in die Taschen der Manager zu arbeiten, wird die Teilnahme beendet. Das Prinzip der Win-Win-Situation macht sich zum Beispiel die Firma Threadless zu Nutze und erzielen dabei bereits eine halbe Million US-Dollar Gewinn im Monat. Threadless ist eine T-Shirt Firma, die Shirts über einen Onlineshop vertreibt. Die Motive werden dabei von den Konsumenten selbst gestaltet. Um das Material, Produktion und Vertrieb kümmert sich das Unternehmen. Sie setzen also die eigenen Kunden als Produktdesigner ein. Diese sind stolz ihre eigenen kreativen Ideen selbst in die Realität umsetzen und sogar einer breiten Öffentlichkeit präsentieren zu können. Eine Aufgabe, die sie allein nicht schaffen würden.

Passives und Aktives Crowdsourcing

Beim Crowdsourcing kann nach aktiven und passiven Verhalten der Teilnehmer unterschieden werden. Beim aktiven Crowdsourcing wird der Teilnehmer bewusst tätig und steuert einem gemeinsamen Ziel bzw. Vorhaben mit seinen Ideen, Wissen, Kreativität oder gar eigenem Informationsgut bei.

Googles Crowdsourcing Trailer

Google erstellte einen Crowdsourcing-Trailer, zu den jeder mit einem eigenen kleinen Video über die Weitergabe des G-Mail „M“ aktiv teilhaben konnte. Ganz nach dem Prinzip einer Kettenmail, soll der Buchstabe als Logoelement „M“, und damit auch das Video, dabei von Station zu Station weitergegeben werden. Die Aktion lief vom 24. Juli bis 17. August 2007 und nutzte die Möglichkeit bei YouTube eines „Video Response“, also eine Antwort auf ein anderes Video. Google selbst stellte ein Video mit einigen Episoden online und forderte am Ende zum Mitmachen auf. Zum Ende der Aktion stehen beachtliche 1.191 Videos online.

Vermittler-Plattformen für Crowdsourcing

Bei dem Webservice von Amazon „Mechanical Turk“ werden Kleinstaufträgen an eine undefinierte Anzahl von Leuten vermittelt. So wird Crowdsourcing zum Beispiel für Bewertungen, Klassifikationen, Datenumkodierungen, Tagging, Übersetzungen, Transkripierungen und Korrekturen eingesetzt. Im März 2007 zählt „Mechanical Turk“ bereits 100.000 Mitarbeiter aus über 100 Ländern. Die Firmen HumanGrid und das Projekt InnoCentive von Procter & Gamble arbeiten bereits ebenso mit dem Vermitteln von Kleinstaufträgen.

Passives Crowdsourcen bei Amazon

Durch die getätigten Einkäufe, Bewertungen und Weiterempfehlungen hilft der Kunde passiv, zum Beispiel Amazon, ihren Internetshop für jeden individuell nach seinen Bedürfnissen und Wünschen aufzubauen. Der Kunde ordnet sinnbildlich die Regale mit den Produkten nach den für sich perfekten Einkaufsladen zusammen, ohne dabei speziell aktiv werden zu müssen. Daraus entsteht eine typische Win-Win-Situation. Er fühlt sich an Amazon gebunden, weil er merkt, hier viel schneller das zu finden, was ihn interessiert und eben auch Produkte findet, die ihm noch völlig unbekannt waren – aber in sein Kaufprofil passen. Der Verkäufer verschwendet nicht die wertvolle Zeit des Kunden mit dem Anpreisen von Produkten, an denen sein Gegenüber eh kein Interesse hat. Ein Marktschreier, der schon vorher weiß, welches Obst der Kunde kaufen möchte, wird das Verkaufsgespräch wahrscheinlich sehr leicht fallen.

Noch deutlicher wird das an dem Prinzip eines Buchladens, der nach den Interessen des Kunden aufgebaut ist. Hier findet er alle für ihn interessanten Bücher in den ersten Reihen beworben. Mit jedem Buch, was er sich anschaut, bekommt er eine Auswahl an weiteren Büchern zum Thema, die durch das Kaufverhalten von wieder anderen Kunden ausgesucht wurden. Durch diesen Verlinkungsprozess wird zusätzlich ein Kaufinteresse bei dem Kunden für ihm bislang unbekannte Produkte erzeugt. In einem klassischen Buchladen werden zwar viele neue Bücher durch große, bunte Werbeaufsteller angeboten, die für den jeweiligen Kunden interessanten Bücher findet er aber nicht, weil diese in den hinteren Buchreihen unten versteckt sind.

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    Martinez Star Struck -- Dh Voted To All-Star Game With Griffey, Rodriguez

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    Griffey's simple gesture sets historic precedent

    As Black History Month plays out across Major League Baseball, it's not hard coming up with the most significant such moment in Mariners history.

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