Vom lokalen zum globalen Marktplatz

4. September 2008 | Von Tino Kreßner | Kategorie: Kommunikation

Märkte werden wieder zu Gesprächen und der einseitige Produzenten-Konsumenten-Kanal wird sukzessive mit Instrumenten für einen Dialog ersetzt. Um den Änderungsprozess zu verstehen, wird zurück zu den Ursprüngen des Marketing gegangen: Dem Marktplatz.

Der Markt war im 19. Jahrhundert ein Handelsplatz und gleichzeitig Rahmen für offene Dialoge zwischen Produzenten und Konsumenten. Wer ein Produkt verkaufen wollte, stellte sich mit einem Stand auf den Marktplatz und schrie seine Verkaufsargumente lautstark heraus. Wurde die Botschaft von einem Menschen auf dem Marktplatz gehört und für interessant oder neuartig bewertet, näherte sich dieser nun dem Verkäufer und wurde zum Kunden. Nun galt es für den Verkäufer sein Produkt mit Argumenten, guter Überzeugungsarbeit und gegeben falls mit Kostproben an den Kunden zu verkaufen. Hier kam es also zu einen offenen Dialog mit einem persönlichen Kontakt zwischen Konsument und Produzent. Der Kunde stellte, je nach Produkt, Fragen und hat sich alle seine Unklarheiten von dem Verkäufer beseitigen lassen. Erst wenn er alle nötigen Informationen besaß, genügend Kleingeld in der Tasche hatte und ein Bedarf an dem Produkt bestand oder gar ein Bedarf durch den Verkäufer geweckt wurde, wird er den Kauf getätigt haben. Selbst wenn der Kunde nicht genügend Geld mit hatte, ist der Verkäufer sicherlich mit dem Preis nach unten gegangen, solange er dabei abzüglich seiner Kosten noch einen Gewinn erzielte.

Im 20. Jahrhundert wurde dann die Bewerbung der Produkte immer bunter, größer und lauter. Der Markt wandelte sich vom Stadtzentrum zum nationalen oder gar internationalen Marktplatz. Die Anzahl der Kunden wurde ebenso größer, wie auch die Konkurrenz. Der Eisenschmied konkurrierte nunmehr nicht nur mit dem Eisenschmied in der Nachbarstadt, sondern immer stärker mit allen Eisenschmieden Deutschlands. Damit vergrößerten sich auch die Anzahl seiner potentiellen Kunden, die nun nicht mehr nur auf dem Marktplatz unterwegs, sondern in ganz Deutschland verstreut, waren. Dies hatte zur Folge, dass auch die direkten Dialoge mit den Kunden schwieriger wurden. Der Produzent konnte mit seinem Produkt nicht überall gleichzeitig im Land sein. Zur Überbringung seiner Botschaft setzte er ein Medium ein, mit dem er mehrere Kunden an verschiedenen Orten erreichen konnte. Er kommunizierte über die Tageszeitungen, von großen Plakatflächen, durch das Radio oder über das Fernsehgerät, klassisch auch als Massenmarketing bezeichnet. Eigentlich ähnlich seiner marktschreierischen Aktivitäten zu Beginn. Nur etwas war anders: Der Rückkanal war nicht vorhanden. All diese Medien boten technisch bedingt nur einen Produzenten-Rezipienten-Kanal an. Der Verkäufer erstellte eine Botschaft, bezahlte für die Platzierung dieser in einem Medium und wartete nun auf die Reaktion der Kunden. Natürlich bestand zu jeder Zeit die Möglichkeit eines Brief- oder Telefonkontakts, aber auch hier wird sicherlich jeder Leser zustimmen, der schon mal in in der Warteschleife eines Call-Centers gelandet ist oder gar mit einer automatisierten Telefonhotline sprechen musste, dass dies nicht mit einem persönlichem Dialog zu vergleichen ist.

Um sich von der Konkurrenz abzuheben, wurden die Werbebotschaften immer ausgefeilter, aber vor allem auffallender und lauter, was seit 2003 mit der Saturn-Werbeaktion „Geiz ist Geil“ verdeutlicht wurde. Lautstark schreit hier eine junge Frage im spacigen, effektvollen Outfit dem Zuschauer entgegen und führte gleichsam durch die Konzentration auf die Preispolitik, unter Vernachlässigung von Qualität, Funktionen und Service zu vielen öffentlichen Diskussionen. Im Oktober 2007 knüpft der Saturn mit einer neuen Werbestrategie an, bei der lediglich eine komplett nackte Cyborg-Frau im Mittelpunkt steht.

Produzenten knappen ihre Botschaften und senden diese über mehrere Medien an potentielle Käufer. Diese Botschaften werden zum großen Teil von eingekauften Werbe- und Marketingagenturen ausgearbeitet und dann im Namen des Produzenten verbreitet. Wenn der Rezipient die Botschaft auf dem Plakat nicht versteht, kann er dieses nicht nach der Bedeutung fragen.

„Der Mensch ist ein Kommunikationstier“ (vgl Langner 2006, 5), schreibt Sascha Langner in seinem Buch „Viral Marketing“ und bezeichnet die Menschen als „[…] die mit Abstand mitteilungsbedürftigsten Tiere“. Der Kommunikationswissenschaftler Manfred Rühl bezeichnet den Menschen als Input-Output System (vgl. Rühl 1969) und verdeutlicht damit, dass zu jedem Input an Informationen auch ein Output produziert wird. Im Falle des Marktschreiers bedeutete dies eine Nachfrage oder eine Kaufhandlung. An wem wird also jetzt der Output gerichtet sein, wenn die Plakatleinwand einen Input liefert? Vermutlich wird es die Person sein, mit der man gerade unterwegs ist, die Frau zu Hause oder der Freund beim abendlichen Bierglas. Wie im 19. Jahrhundert wird auch heute noch über die Produkte und Dienstleistungen gesprochen, nur, wie dieser Fall zeigen soll, kann es passieren, dass der eigentliche Sender der Botschaft nicht mehr an dieser Kommunikation direkt teilnimmt. Es wird über ihn gesprochen, aber nicht mit ihm. Demzufolge hat er wenig Kontrolle über die Inhalte des Gespräches.

Natürlich kann der Werbebotschaften-Rezipient in den nächsten Saturn Markt gehen, und dort mit den Angestellten über das Plakat und die darauf stehende Botschaft sprechen. Aber wird zum Beispiel ein amerikanischer Kinofilm betrachtet, dann wird deutlich, dass der Rezipient der Werbebotschaften oder der Konsument dieses Films unrealistische Chancen haben wird, mit den Produzenten in einen Dialog zu treten.


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